Integration of geoelectrical, hydrochemical and geothermal data to identify the origin of thermal water in the foothills of the Tlemcen mountains, Northwestern Algeria


Submitted: 11 July 2023
Accepted: 20 March 2024
Published: 28 March 2024
Abstract Views: 104
PDF: 91
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

In previous studies, the mean geothermal gradient of the Tlemcen region has been estimated as low (3.7°C/100m). The existing boreholes in the Remchi plain (North of the Tlemcen Mountains) reveal thermal waters (26-48°C) and a remarkable artesianism. To understand the hydrodynamics and origin of thermalism of this groundwater, we merged geophysical and physical-chemical data. Geophysical data allowed us to improve the resolution of the fault network, to estimate the thickness of various sandstone beds connected with the thermal reservoir and to delimit the productive aquifer. Chemical characteristics of waters have been used for a statistical analysis, which displayed two independent water clusters resulting from two hydrodynamic patterns throughout the aquifer. The hydrothermal analysis identifies the depth reached by water and the relationship between water circulation and the fault network. Comparison with previous studies allowed us to build a schematic geological model, which explains hydrodynamics, origin and role of this structure in the groundwater flow.


Abdesselam M., Mania J., Mudry J., Gelard J.-P., Chauve P., Lami H. & Aigoun C. (2000). Argument hydrogéochimique en faveur de Trias évaporitique non affleurant dans le massif du Djurdjura (dorsale kabyle, élément des Magrébides), Hydrogeochemical argument in favor of evaporitic Trias not outcropping in the Djurdjura massif (Kabyle ridge, Magrébides element), Revue des Sciences de l’Eau, 13/2, 155-166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7202/705387ar

Amar Belarbi Y. & Bensliman M. (2023). Etude hydrogéologique et caractérisation spatio-temporelle de la qualité des eaux souterraines du groupe urbain de Tlemcen. Hydrogeological study and spatiotemporal characterization of groundwater quality in the urban group of Tlemcen. Master thesis, University of Tlemcen 140 p.

ANRH (1995). Map of the Tlemcen Mountains Large Karst Aquifers (1/200 000).

Bakalowicz M. (1979). Contribution à l’étude de la géochimie à la connaissance de l’aquifère Karstique et de la Karstification, Contribution to the geochemistry study to the knowledge of the Karst aquifer and Karstification, Thesis Sciences, Paris Sud, Orsay, 275p.

Belarbi F. (2018). Etude des précipitations, du transport solide dans le bassin versant de la Tafna et leur interrelation. Study of precipitation, solid transport in the Tafna watershed and their interrelationship. Ph.D. thesis, University of Tlemcen, 185p.

Belkhiri L., Boudoukha A., Mouni L. & Baouz T. (2010). Multivariate statistical characterization of groundwater quality in Ain Azel plain, Algeria. Multivariate statistical characterization of groundwater quality in Ain Azel plain, Algeria, African Journal of DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2010.09.007

Environmental Science and Technology, 4(8), 526-534.

Benest M., Bensalah M., Bouabdellah H. & Ouardas T. (1999). La couverture mésozoïque et cénozoïque du domaine Tlemcénien (Avant pays Tellien d’Algérie occidentale) : Stratigraphie, paléoenvironnement, dynamique sédimentaire et tecto-genèse alpine. The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Cover of the Tlemcenian Domain (Tellien Foreland of Western Algeria): Stratigraphy, Paleoenvironment, Sedimentary Dynamics and Alpine Tectogenesis, Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Algeria, 10, 2.

Benkhlifa S. & Lamouri S. (2018). Contribution à l’étude hydrogéologique de la nappe du Bajo-Bathonien (Nord-Ouest Algérie). Contribution to the hydrogeological study of the Bajo-Bathonian aquifer (North-West Algeria), Master’s thesis, University of Tlemcen 80 p.

Bensaoula F. (2007). Etude de la karstification à partir des données de forage : le cas des Monts de Tlemcen (Algérie). Study of karstification from borehole data: the case of the Tlemcen Mountains (Algeria), Karstologia, 49, 2007. 15-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/karst.2007.2596

Bensaoula F. & Adjim M. (2006). Synthèse sur les forages hydrauliques profonds de la zone frontalière algéro-marocaine. Synthesis on deep hydraulic drilling in the Algerian-Moroccan border area, Larhyss journal n°5, pp.33-48

Bensaoula F., Bensalah M. & Achachi A. (2005). Etude des circulations d’eaux profondes dans les dolomies du dogger de Zouia (bordure occidentale des Monts de Tlemcen, nord-ouest algérien. Study of deep water circulations in the dolomites of the Zouia dogger (western edge of the Tlemcen Mountains, northwestern Algeria. Hydrogeology Bulletin, 21, 17-31.

Bianchetti G., Roth P. & Vuataz F.-D. (1992). Deep groundwater circulation in the Alps: Relations between water infiltration,

induced seismicity and thermal springs. The case of Val d’Illiez, Wallis, Switzerland, Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 85, 2, 291-305.

Blavoux B. & Mudry J. (1986). Influence des pluies estivales sur la qualité des réserves de l’aquifère karstique : le rôle du sol et de l’épikarst dans la concentration des chlorures. Influence of summer rains on the quality of karst aquifer reserves: the role of soil and epikarst in chloride concentration, Bulletin de la Société Géologique de la France, 11, 4, 667-674. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2113/gssgfbull.II.4.667

Blavoux B. & Collignon B. (1986). Les Sources Bicarbonatees Thermales des piemonts de la Meseta Oranaise. The Bicarbonate Thermal Springs of the foothills of the Meseta Oranaise, 6th National Seminar on Earth Sciences (Algiers December 1986)

Boudoukha A., Athamna M. & Benaabidate L. (2015). Etude du potentiel hydrothermal de hammam Sokhna. Est algerien. Study of the hydrothermal potential of Sokhna hammam East of Algeria, Larhyss Journal, ISSN 1112-3680, 24, Decembre 2015, 161-174.

Boukacem K. & Derbal F. Z. (2019). Etude hydrochimique et qualitative des eaux souterraines des régions de Béni Snous et Sabra (N - O algérien). Hydrochemical and qualitative study of groundwater in the regions of Beni Snous and Sabra (N.W. Algeria). Master’s thesis, University of Tlemcen 76p.

BRGM (2005). Géothermie très basse et basse énergie : Une énergie du développement durable. An energy of sustainable development. Scientific summary sheet, BRGM, Orléans, 5 p.

Clair A. (1974). Rénovation rurale, aménagement de la région de Tlemcen. Rapport de synthèse (cartes et notices). Rural renewal, development of the Tlemcen region. Synthesis report (maps and notices),Record of the lithological map of the region of Tlemcen at 1/100.000. SODETEC.

Collignon B. (1986). Hydrogéologie appliquée des aquifères karstiques des Monts de Tlemcen. Applied hydrogeology of the karst aquifers of the Tlemcen Mountains, 1986, Avignon Thesis 272 p.

Dazy J., Dray M., Jusserand C., Pasqualotto M. & Zuppi G.-M. (1987). Caractérisation isotopique des eaux thermominérales des Alpes du Nord franco-italiennes. Isotopic characterization of thermomineral waters from the French-Italian Northern Alps, Proceedings Symposium

IAEA-UNESCO, Vienna, 30 march-3 april 1987. De Andrade E.-M., Queiroz Palácio H.-A., Souzai. H. & De Oliveira

Leão M.-J.-G. (2008). Land use effects in groundwater composition of an alluvial aquifer (Trussu River, Brazil) by multivariate techniques, Environmental Research, 106, 2, February 2008, 170–177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2007.10.008

ENAGEO, ENTREPRISE NATIONALE DE GEOPHYSIQUE -Mission GA 263. (1979). Etude géophysique et hydrogéologique des Monts de Tlemcen. Geophysical and hydrogeological study of the Tlemcen Mountains.

ENAGEO, ENTREPRISE NATIONALE DE GEOPHYSIQUE- Mission HG 243 ( DU 06/10/1983 AU 07/12/1983). Etude géophysique des régions à l’Ouest de Tlemcen et la Plaine d’Hennaya. Geophysical study of the regions west of Tlemcen and the Hennaya Plain.

ENAGEO, ENTREPRISE NATIONALE DE GEOPHYSIQUE.(1987). Prospection géophysique dans les Monts de Tlemcen. Geophysical prospecting in the Tlemcen Mountains.

Fekraoui A. (2007). Caractéristiques géochimiques des eaux géothermales de la région d’Oran. Geochemical characteristics of the geothermal waters of the Oran region, Renewable Energy Review CER’07. Oujda. 75-80.

Guardia P. (1984). Notice et Carte géologique Oranie nord occidentale à 1/100 000. Geological Map North-West Orania at 1:100,000. University of Nice

Gueddari H., Akodad M., Baghour M., Moumen A., Skalli A., El Yousfi Y., Ismail A., Chahban M., Azizi G., Ait Hmeid M. Z., (2022). The salinity origin and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the Oued Kert basin, northeastern of Morocco. Scientific African 16 (2022) e01226 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2022.e01226

Hamit A. (2012). Étude du fonctionnement hydrogéochimique du système aquifère du Chari Baguirmi (République du Tchad). Study of the hydrogeochemical functioning of the Chari Baguirmi aquifer system (Republic of Chad), Poitiers thesis. 319 p.

Helena B., Pardo R., Vega M., Barrado E., Fernandez J.-M. & Fernandez L. (2000). Temporal evolution of groundwater composition in an alluvial aquifer (Pisuerga River, Spain) by principal component analysis, Water Research, 34, 3, 15 February 2000, 807–816. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00225-0

ICOSIUM forage et engineering services (2002). Prospection électrique dans la région de Remchi-Aïn Youcef et Hennaya” Wilaya de Tlemcen”. Electrical prospecting in the region of Remchi-Aïn Youcef and Hennaya” Wilaya of Tlemcen”, Report of the National Agency for Hydraulic Resources, 26-31

Issaadi A. (1996). Mécanismes de fonctionnement des systems hydrothermaux. Application aux eaux thermominérales algériennes et aux eaux de Hammam Bou-Hadjar. Mechanisms of operation of hydrothermal systems. Application to Algerian thermomineral waters and the waters of Hammam Bou-Hadjar, Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Algeria 7, 1, 71-85.

Issaadi A. (2005). Identification et origine des gaz associes aux sources minérales, thermales et thermominérales algériennes. Apports à la connaissance de la géologie profonde de l’Algérie septentrionale. Identification and origin of gases associated with Algerian mineral, thermal and thermomineral springs. Contributions to the knowledge of the deep geology of northern Algeria, Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Algeria , 16, 2, 115 - 125.

Kedaid F. Z. (2006). Développement de la base de données géothermiques de l’Algérie par un système d’information géographique. Development of Algeria’s geothermal database by a geographic information system, Revue des Energies Renouvelables, 9,4, 253 – 258. DOI: https://doi.org/10.54966/jreen.v9i4.834

Kerzabi R. (2008). Identification de l’aquifère des grès serravalliens du bassin miocène dans la région de Remchi-Hennaya- Bensekrane et Ouled Mimoun. Identification of the Serravallian sandstone aquifer of the Miocene basin in the region of Remchi-Hennaya-Bensekrane and Ouled Mimoun, Magister of the University of Tlemcen, 87 p.

Khaska M., Le Gal La Salle C., Lancelot J., ASTER team, Mohamad A., Verdoux P., Noret A. & Simler R. (2013). Origin of groundwater salinity (current seawater vs. saline deep water) in a coastal karst, Applied Geochemistry, 37 212–227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2013.07.006

Lakrout, A., Meddah, B., & Ali Rahmani, S. E. (2022). Geochemical assessment of thermal water in Bouhanifia aquifer system: suitability for touristic therapeutic treatment. Applied Water Science, 12(8), 204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-022-01727-y

Lloyd J.W. & Heathcoat J.A. (1985). Natural inorganic hydrochemistry in relation to groundwater: an introduction. Oxford University Press, New York, 296 p.

Mansour H., Nadji A. & Issaadi A. (2011). La tectonique récente et ses conséquences sur le thermominéralisme de Hammam Bou-Hadjar (Ain Témouchent, Algérie nord occidentale). Recent tectonics and its consequences on the thermomineralism of Hammam Bou-Hadjar (Ain Témouchent, northwestern Algeria), Africa Geoscience Review, 18, 2, 93-10

Marín Celestino, A. E., Martínez Cruz, D. A., Otazo Sánchez, E. M., Gavi Reyes, F., & Vásquez Soto, D. (2018). Groundwater quality assessment: An improved approach to K-means clustering, principal component analysis and spatial analysis: A case study. Water, 10(4), 437. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w10040437

Meddi M M, Arkamose A & Meddi H (2010). Temporal Variability of Annual Rainfall in the Macta and Tafna Catchments Northwestern Algeria. Water Resour Manage, v. 24, n. 2010 pp. 3817–3833. DOI 101007/s11269-010-9635-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-010-9635-7

Mhamdi, A., Moussaoui, I., Khalfi, C. Tarki M. & Dassi L. (2022). Assessment of groundwater mineralization processes in the Garâat Douza-Tebeddit shallow aquifer, Southwestern Tunisia: an integrated geoelectrical and hydrochemical approach. Carbonates Evaporites 37, 33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13146-022-00781-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13146-022-00781-6

Mouser P.-J., Rizzo D.-M., Röling W.-F.-M. & Breukelen M. (2005). A Multivariate Statistical Approach to Spatial Representation of Groundwater Contamination using Hydrochemistry and Microbial Community Profiles, Environmental Science and Technology, 39 (19), 7551–7559. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/es0502627

Mudry J. (1987). Apport du traçage physico-chimique naturel à la connaissance hydrocinématique des aquifères carbonatés. Contribution of natural physico-chemical tracing to the hydrokinetic knowledge of carbonate aquifers, Besançon thesis, 311p.

Nedjaï R. (1987). Etude hydrogéologique et hydrochimique des eaux thermales du centre algérien (Nord). Hydrogeological and hydrochemical study of the thermal waters of central Algeria (North),Grenoble Thesis, 201 p

Ouali S., Khellaf A. & Baddari K. (2007). Etude des ressources géothermiques du sud algérien. Study of geothermal resources in southern Algeria, 2007, Revue des Energies Renouvelables , 10, 3, 407 – 414. DOI: https://doi.org/10.54966/jreen.v10i3.773

Razack M. & Dazy J. (1990). Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater mixing in sedimentary and metamorphic reservoirs with combined used of Piper’s principle and factor analysis, Journal of Hydrology, 114, 371-393. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(90)90066-7

Rodier J. (2009). L’analyse de l’eau: Eaux naturelles, eaux résiduaires, eau de mer. Water analysis: Natural waters, waste water, seawater. 8th Edition Dunod..

Saberinasr, A., Morsali, M., Hashemnejad, A., & Hassanpour, J. (2019). Determining the origin of groundwater elements using

hydrochemical data (case study: Kerman water conveyance tunnel). Environmental Earth Sciences, 78, 1-17.

Touati H. & Nebia R. (2019). Apport des SIG à la caractérisation hydrogéologique et hydrochimique des eaux souterraines des bassins versants d’Oued Zitoun-Oued Boumessaoud (Monts de Tlemcen, Nord-Ouest Algérie). Contribution of GIS to the hydrogeological and hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in the watersheds of Oued

Zitoun-Oued Boumessaoud (Tlemcen Mountains, North-West Algeria). Master’s thesis, University of Tlemcen, 92 p.

Telford, W. M., Geldart, L. P., & Sheriff, R. E. (1990). Applied geophysics. Cambridge university press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139167932

Yebdri L. (2023). Etude de la vulnérabilité des eaux du bassin versant de la Tafna (Algérie, nord-occidentale). Study of the vulnerability of the waters of the Tafna watershed (Algeria, north-west), Ph.D. Thesis in Science University of Tlemcen,, 230 p.

Yousfi S. (2014). Étude hydrodynamique et modélisation des écoulements souterrains dans les gouttières synclinales gréseuses du Barrémo-Albo-Aptien d’Aïn Séfra (partie centrale des Monts des Ksour – Atlas Saharien, Nord-Ouest Algérie). Hydrodynamic study and modelling of groundwater flows in the sandstone synclinal gutters of the Barrémo-Albo-Aptien of Aïn Séfra (central part of the Ksour Mountains – Saharan Atlas, North-West Algeria), Ph.D. thesis Hydrogeology

University of Oran and University of Franche-Comté.

Zamroni A., Sugarbo O., Trisnaning T. P., Sagala S. T. and Putra A. S. (2021). Geochemical Approach for Seawater Intrusion Assessment in the Area around Yogyakarta International Airport, Indonesia. Iraqi Geological Journal, 2021, 54 (1F), 1-11. DOI: 10.46717/igj.54.1F.1ms-2021-06-21 DOI: https://doi.org/10.46717/igj.54.1F.1ms-2021-06-21

Yousfi, S., Kerzabi, R., Mudry, J., Bensalah, M., Achachi, A., & Collignon, B. (2024). Integration of geoelectrical, hydrochemical and geothermal data to identify the origin of thermal water in the foothills of the Tlemcen mountains, Northwestern Algeria. Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater, 13(1), 109–122. https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2024-701

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations