Hydrogeochemical evolution and mineralization origin in a semi-arid shallow aquifer: a case study of the Barika area in northeast Algeria


Submitted: 11 January 2023
Accepted: 8 May 2023
Published: 28 June 2023
Abstract Views: 394
PDF: 304
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

Most Middle Eastern and North African regions are characterized by an arid and semi-arid climate. As such, the drinking water supply and management have become a challenging task for local and regional authorities. The Mio-Plio Quaternary aquifer of the Barika area is the only drinking and irrigation water reservoir in the region. The objective of this paper is to identify the origin and evolution process of the groundwater mineralization of this aquifer using major elements as indicators. To achieve this objective water samples were collected, from several boreholes drilled in the aquifer, in June 2018 and March 2019, and subsequently analyzed. The results obtained in terms of Gibbs plot, Piper, chemical correlation, and statistical analysis of chemical data identified the origins of groundwater mineralization. The dissolution of evaporated minerals, precipitation of carbonates, evapotranspiration, and ion exchange reactions have been identified as the primary processes of mineralization. The results of the physicochemical analysis showed that these waters consisted mainly of chloride, calcium sulfate, and magnesium facies types with a slight change of facies in some boreholes during the two sampling periods. This is due to the interactions with the-aquifer geology and to the water scarcity caused by climate change.


Adimalla, N., Li, P., Venkatayogi, S. (2018). Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater Quality for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes and Integrated Interpretation with Water Quality Index Studies. Environ. Process. 5, 363–383. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-018-0297-4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40710-018-0297-4

Al-Ahmadi, M.E. (2013). Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in wadiSayyah, Western Saudi Arabia.Applied Water Science 3, 721-732. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-013-0118-x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-013-0118-x

Aouiti, S., Hamzaoui Azaza, F., El Melki, F., Hamdi, M., Celico, F., Zammouri, M. (2021). Groundwater quality assessment for different uses using various water quality indices in semi-arid region of central Tunisia. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 46669-46691. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11149-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11149-5

Barzegar, R., Asghari Moghaddam, A., Adamowski, J., Nazemi, A.H. (2019). Assessing the potential origins and human health risks of trace elements in groundwater: A case study in the Khoy plain, Iran. Environ Geochem Health 41, 981–1002 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0194-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-018-0194-9

Ben Moussa, A., Zouari, K., Oueslati, N. (2009). Geochemical study of groundwater mineralization in the Grombalia shallow aquifer, north-eastern Tunisia: implication of irrigation and industrial waste water accounting. Environ Geol 58, 555–566. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1530-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1530-7

Besser, H., Dhaouadi, L., Hadji, R., Hamed, Y., Jemmali, H. (2021). Ecologic and economic perspectives for sustainable irrigated agriculture under arid climate conditions: An analysis based on environmental indicators for southern Tunisia. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 177, 104134 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2021.104134

Beyaitan Bantin, A., Wang, H., Jun, X. (2020). Analysis and Control of the Physicochemical Quality of Groundwater in the Chari Baguirmi Region in Chad. Water, 12(10), 2826. MDPI AG. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102826 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102826

Brahmi, S., Baali, F., Hadji, R., Brahmi, S., Hamad, A., Rahal, O., Hamed, Y. (2021). Assessment of groundwater and soil pollution by leachate using electrical resistivity and induced polarization imaging survey, case of Tebessa municipal landfill, NE Algeria. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 14(4), 1-13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-06571-z

Capaccioni, B., Didero, M., Paletta, C., Didero, L. (2005). Saline intrusion and refreshening in a multilayer coastal aquifer in the Catania Plain (Sicily, Southern Italy): dynamics of degradation processes according to the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwaters. Journal of Hydrology, 307(1-4), 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.08.037

Castilla-Rho, J.C., Rojas, R., Andersen, M.S., Holley, C., Mariethoz, G. (2017). Social tipping points in global groundwater management. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(9), 640-649. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-017-0181-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-017-0181-7

Chang, F.J., Huang, C.W., Cheng, S.T., Chang, L.C. (2017). Conservation of groundwater from over-exploitation-Scientific analyses for groundwater resources management. Sci Total Environ. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.142 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.142

Cidu, R., Biddau, R., Fanfani, L. (2009). Impact of past mining activity on the quality of groundwater in SW Sardinia (Italy). Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 100(2-3), 125-132. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2008.02.003

Dakoure, D. (2003). Etude hydrogéologique et géochimique de la bordure sud-est du bassin sédimentaire de Taoudeni (Burkina Faso-Mali): essai de modélisation (Doctoral dissertation, Paris 6). Hydrogeological and geochemical study of the southeastern border of the Taoudeni sedimentary basin (Burkina Faso-Mali): modeling test (Doctoral dissertation, Paris 6).

Dixon, W., Chiswell, B. (1992). The use of hydrochemical sections to identify recharge areas and saline intrusions in alluvial aquifers, southeast Queensland, Australia. Journal of Hydrology, 135(1-4), 259-274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(92)90091-9

Djabri, L., Rouabhia, A., Hani, A., Lamouroux, C., Pulido-Bosch, A. (2008). Origin of water salinity in a lake and coastal aquifer system. Environmental geology, 54(3), 565-573. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0851-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-007-0851-2

Djamaï, R., Djamel, F., Aziz L., Mohamed, B., Youcef, D., Vincent, V. (2011). Le concept d’alcalinité résiduelle et évolution géochimique des processus. The concept of residual alkalinity and geochemical evolution of processes. Application to the salty soils of Lake Fetzara (North-East Algeria). Application aux sols salés du lac Fetzara (Nord-Est algérien). Synthèse: Revue des Sciences et de la Technologie 23 (2011): 90-98.

Drias, T., Khedidja, A., Belloula, M., Badraddine, S., Saibi, H. (2020). Groundwater modelling of the Tebessa-Morsott alluvial aquifer (northeastern Algeria): A geostatistical approach. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 11, 100444. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2020.100444

DSA (2019). Rapport de la direction des services agricoles. Report of agricultural services department.

ENAGEO (1992). Etude Geophysique par Sondages Electriques Verticaux De la plane de Barika, rapport geophysique. Geophysical study by vertical electrical soundings of the Barika plane, geophysical report.

FAO (1970). Etudes des ressources naturelles et expérimentation et démonstration agricoles dans la région du Hodna: Amélioration des pâturages et de l’élevage. -UNDP ALG/66/609. Natural resource studies and agricultural experimentation and demonstration in the Hodna region: Pasture and livestock improvement-UNDP ALG/66/609.

Fehdi, C., Rouabhia, A., Baali, F., Boudoukha, A. (2009). The hydrogeochemical characterization of Morsott-El Aouinet aquifer, northeastern Algeria. Environmental Geology, 58, 1611-1620. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1667-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1667-4

Gao, Y., Chen, J., Qian, H., Wang, H., Ren, W., Qu, W. (2022). Hydrogeochemical characteristics and processes of groundwater in an over 2260 year irrigation district: a comparison between irrigated and non irrigated areas. Journal of hydrology, 606, 127437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.127437 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.127437

Gibbs, R.J. (1970). Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science, 170(3962), 1088-1090. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.170.3962.1088

Gouaidia, L., Laouar, M.S., Défaflia, N., Zenati, N. (2017). Origine de la mineralisation des eaux souterraines d’un aquifere dans une zone semi-aride, cas de la nappe de la merdja, nord-est algerien. Origin of groundwater mineralization of an aquifer in a semi-arid zone, case of the Merdja aquifer, northeastern Algeria. Int. J. Environ. Water, 6, 104.

Gueddari, H., Akodad, M., Baghour, M., Moumen, A., Skalli, A., El Yousfi, Y., Zahid, M. (2022). The salinity origin and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the Oued Kert basin, north-eastern of Morocco. Scientific African, 16, e01226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2022.e01226

Guiraud, R. (1973). Evolution post- triasique de l’avant pays de la chaine alpine d’après l’étude du bassin du Hodna et les régions voisines. Thèse de doctorat-Université de Nice. Post-Triassic evolution of the foreland of the Alpine chain according to the study of the Hodna basin and neighboring regions. Doctoral thesis-University of Nice.

Hamad, A., Hadji, R., Bâali, F., Houda, B., Redhaounia, B., Zighmi, K., Hamed, Y. (2018). Conceptual model for karstic aquifers by combined analysis of GIS, chemical, thermal, and isotopic tools in Tuniso-Algerian transboundary basin. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 11(15), 1-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-018-3773-2

Hamed, Y. (2022). Vulnerability characterization for multi-carbonate aquifer systems in semiarid climate, case of Algerian–Tunisian transboundary basin. International Journal of Energy and Water Resources, 6(1), 67-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42108-021-00142-4

Hamed, Y., Hadji, R., Redhouania, B., Zighmi, K., Baali, F., Elgayar, A. (2018). Climate impact on surface and grounwater in North Africa: a global synthesis of findings and recommendations. Euro Mediterranean J. Environ. Integrat. 3 (1), 25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41207-018-0067-8

Hamed, Y., Hadji R., Ncibi, K., Hamad, A., Ben Saad, A., Melki, A., Mustafa, E. (2022a). Modelling of potential groundwater artificial recharge in the transboundary Algero-Tunisian Basin (Tebessa-Gafsa): The application of stable isotopes and hydroinformatics tools. Irrigation and Drainage, 71(1), 137-156. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.2647

Hamed, Y., Khelifi, F., Houda, B., Sâad, A.B., Ncibi, K., Hadji, R., Hamad, A. (2022b). Phosphate mining pollution in southern Tunisia: environmental, epidemiological, and socioeconomic investigation. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-022-02606-x

Hounslow, A. (1995). Water Quality Data: Analysis and Interpretation (1st ed.). CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203734117. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203734117

Jalali, M. (2009). Geochemistry characterization of groundwater in an agricultural area of Razan, Hamadan, Iran. Environ Geol 56, 1479–1488. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1245-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-008-1245-9

Kallel, A., Ksibi, M., Dhia, H.B., Khélifi, N. (2017). Recent Advances in Environmental Science from the Euro-Mediterranean and Surrounding Regions Proceedings of Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration (EMCEI-1), Tunisia 2017. In Conference proceedings EMCEI (p. 167). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70548-4_588

Krishna Kumar, S., Logeshkumaran, A., Magesh, N.S., Godson, P.S., Chandrasekar, N. (2015). Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India. Applied Water Science 5, 335-343. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0196-4

Kumari, M., Rai, S.C. (2020). Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater Quality for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes Using Water Quality Index in Semi Arid Region of India. J Geol Soc India 95, 159–168. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-020-1405-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-020-1405-4

Li, P., Tian, R., Liu, R. (2018). Solute Geochemistry and Multivariate Analysis of Water Quality in the Guohua Phosphorite Mine, Guizhou Province, China. Exposure and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-018-0277-y. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-018-0277-y

Loucks, D.P., Van Beek, E. (2017). Water resource systems planning and management: An introduction to methods, models, and applications. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44234-1

Mitryasova, O., Pohrebennyk, V. (2020). Hydrochemical indicators of water system analysis as factors of the environmental quality state. Sustainable Production: Novel Trends in Energy, Environment and Material Systems, 91-104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11274-5_7

Modibo Sidibé, A., Lin, X., Koné, S. (2019). Assessing groundwater mineralization process, quality, and isotopic recharge origin in the Sahel Region in Africa. Water, 11(4), 789. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040789

Mohammed, B., Gaëlle, T. (2009). Ressources et demandes en eau en Méditerranée: situation et perspectives. Water Resources and demands in the Mediterranean:situation and prospects. Science et changements planétaires / Sécheresse, 20(1): 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1684/sec.2009.0162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1684/sec.2009.0162

Mouassa, S., Moulla, A.S., Benhadj Tahar, A., Teffahi, M., Zaagane, M., Benyoucef, M., Brahmia, N. (2020). Geochemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater in the alluvial aquifer of Guelma (north-eastern Algeria). Arabian Journal of Geosciences 13, 1-19. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-5212-4

Nazzal, Y., Al-Arifi, N.S., Kishawy, H.A., Al-Kahtany, K. (2014). Statistical characterization of the hydrochemical data of groundwater in the arid land of Wadi AdDawasir area, Saudi Arabia: a probabilistic assessment. Geologia Croatica 67:207–216. https://doi.org/10.4154/gc.2014.15 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4154/GC.2014.15

Nekkoub, A., Baali, F., Hadji, R., Hamed, Y. (2020). The EPIK multiattribute method for intrinsic vulnerability assessment of karstic aquifer under semi-arid climatic conditions, case of Cheria Plateau, NE Algeria. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 13(15), 1-15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05704-0

Ncibi, K., Hadji, R., Hajji, S., Besser, H., Hajlaoui, H., Hamad, A., Hamed, Y. (2021). Spatial variation of groundwater vulnerability to nitrate pollution under excessive fertilization using index overlay method in central Tunisia (Sidi Bouzid basin). Irrigation and Drainage, 70(5), 1209-1226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.2599

Parisi, A., Alfio, M.R., Balacco, G., Güler, C., Fidelibus, M.D. (2023). Analyzing spatial and temporal evolution of groundwater salinization through Multivariate Statistical Analysis and Hydrogeochemical Facies Evolution-Diagram. Science of The Total Environment, 862, 160697. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.160697

Piper, A.M., (1944). A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water-analyses. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/TR025i006p00914

Raj, D., Shaji, E. (2017). Fluoride contamination in groundwater resources of Alleppey, southern India. Geoscience Frontiers, 8(1), 117-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2016.01.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2016.01.002

Rais, K., Kara, M., Gadri, L., Hadji, R., Khochmen, L. (2017). Original Approach for the drilling process optimization in open cast mines; case study of Kef Essenoun open pit mine Northeast of Algeria. Mining Science, 24. https://doi.org/10.5277/msc172409.

Rouaibia, F., Djabri, L. (2017). Caractéristiques chimiques des eaux de la nappe du synclinal de Taoura, Souk Ahras (Nord-Est de l’Algérie). Chemical characteristics of the waters of the Taoura syncline aquifer, Souk Ahras (North-East Algeria). Synthèse: Revue des Sciences et de la Technologie, 35, 124-139.

Saccenti, E., Timmerman, M.E. (2016). Approaches to Sample Size Determination for Multivariate Data: Applications to PCA and PLS-DA of Omics Data. Journal of Proteome Research 15, 2379–2393. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b01029. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b01029

Sadooni, F., Al Awadi, M. (2009). Dolomite: perspectives on a perplexing mineral. Oilfield Review, 21(3).

Sappa, G., Iacurto, S., Ferranti, F., De Filippi, F.M. (2019a). Groundwater quality assessment in a karst coastal region of the West Aurunci Mountains (Central Italy). Geofluids, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3261713. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3261713

Sappa, G., De Filippi, F.M., Ferranti, F., Iacurto, S. (2019b). Environmental issues and anthropic pressures in coastal aquifers: a case study in Southern Latium Region. Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater. https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2019-373. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2019-373

Subramani, T., Elango, L., Damodarasamy, S.R. (2005). Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Agricultural Use in Chithar River Basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Geology, 47, 1099-1110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-005-1243-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-005-1243-0

Sudan, S. (2018). Assessment of Groundwater Quality: A Case Study of Jammu District. International of Science and Research (IJSR). https://doi.org/10.21275/ART20177253.

Telahigue, F., Agoubi, B., Souid, F., Kharroubi, A. (2018). Assessment of seawater intrusion in an arid coastal aquifer, south-eastern Tunisia, using multivariate statistical analysis and chloride mass balance. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 106, 37-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2018.05.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2018.05.001

Yousefi, H., Sina, Z., Mohammad, H.N. (2018). Modifying the analysis made by water quality index using multi-criteria decision making methods. Journal of African Earth Sciences 138: 309-318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.11.019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.11.019

Zouita, A.B.M., Hergli, C., Guiga, S., Salah, F.Z.B., Dziri, C. (2018). Effet des parcours de marche, d’équilibre et de force sur la condition physique des personnes âgées. Effect of walking, balance and strength courses on the physical condition of the elderly. Science & Sports, 33, S36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2018.03.056

Zhang, Q., Qian, H., Xu, P., Hou, K., Yang, F. (2021). Groundwater quality assessment using a new integrated-weight water quality index (IWQI) and driver analysis in the Jiaokou Irrigation District, China. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 212, 111992. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111992. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111992

Supporting Agencies

MGRE LABORATORY Batna 2 University

Tafrount, A., Drias, T., Chenaf, D., & Nafaa, B. (2023). Hydrogeochemical evolution and mineralization origin in a semi-arid shallow aquifer: a case study of the Barika area in northeast Algeria. Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater, 12(2), 19–34. https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2023-624

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations