Applying the Principal Component Analysis for a deeper understanding of the groundwater system: case study of the Bacchiglione Basin (Veneto, Italy)


Submitted: 2 May 2022
Accepted: 3 June 2022
Published: 28 June 2022
Abstract views:
359


PDF:
326
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Authors

In hydrogeology, it is often difficult to fully understand the hydraulic factors affecting the recharge of groundwater systems. Particularly, at a regional scale, the groundwater system can have different drivers depending on the considered area, i.e., soil permeability, paleochannels, and precipitation. Chemicalphysical (i.e. temperature) or hydrogeochemical data can help such understanding. However, this type of information is usually sparse at the regional scale, whereas extended groundwater piezometric head monitoring is more common. This study aims at exploiting these longitudinal observations of the hydraulic head to validate (and possibly bring more insights into) the geological structural model of aquifer systems. Clustering control points based on the piezometric head average annual variations can help the system conceptualization in two ways: (i) clusters can geographically identify areas with similar hydrogeological behavior; and (ii) the typical cluster annual variation with its ups and downs can bring insights on the recharge component of an aquifer system. Nevertheless, visual clustering can be a long and subjective procedure, thus this study suggests the use of the Principal Component Analysis to cluster the control points with a similar average annual variation of their recorded time series. This study supports the proposed analysis by applying it to the monitoring data of the Bacchiglione basin resulting in (i) clusters identified based on the number, moment, and lengths of groundwater level peaks and minima, (ii) wellgathered clusters in space, underpinning the groundwater hydrograph dependence on local driving factors. Furthermore, the investigation of clustering anomalies highlighted the relevance of the presence of time series with different recording periods pinpointing, however, the method's capacity to spot a change in the hydrogeological cycle over the years.


Altissimo L, Bertoldo S, Campagnolo F, Gusmaroli G, Muraro T, Sottani A (2014) Managed aquifer recharge experiences with shallow wells: first analysis of the experimental activities in the high Vicenza plain (Northern Italy). Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater 3(3), 31-39. https://doi.org/10.7343/as-082-14-0108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7343/as-082-14-0108

Altissimo L, Dal Prà A, Scaltriti G (1999) Relazione conclusive “Final report”. Osservatorio interprovinciale per la tutela delle falde acquifere, Vicenza.

ARPAV (2016) Stato quantitativo dei corpi idrici sotterranei “Quantitative status of groundwater systems” - ALLEGATO A alla Dgr n. 552 del 26 aprile 2016. Regione del Veneto.

Aghabozorgi S, Shirkhorshidi AS, Wah TY (2015) Time-series clustering - a decade review. Information Systems 53, 16–38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.is.2015.04.007

Barbagli A, Jensen BN, Raza M, Schüth C, Rossetto R (2019) Assessment of soil buffer capacity on nutrients and pharmaceuticals in nature-based solution applications. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 26(1):759-774. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3515-8

Barthel R, Haaf E, Nygren M, Giese M (2022) Systematic visual analysis of groundwater hydrographs: potential benefits and challenges. Hydrogeology Journal, 1-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-021-02433-w

Barthel, R, Haaf, E, Giese, M, Nygren, M, Heudorfer, B, Stahl, K (2021) Similarity-based approaches in hydrogeology: proposal of a new concept for data-scarce groundwater resource characterization and prediction. Hydrogeology Journal, 29(5), 1693-1709. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-021-02358-4

Bro R, Smilde AK (2014) Principal component analysis. Analytical methods, 6(9), 2812-2831 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1039/C3AY41907J

Dal Prà A, Bellati R, Antonelli A, Costacurta R, Sbettega G (1977) Distribuzione dei materiali limoso-argillosi nel sottosuolo della pianura veneta “Distribution of silty-clayey materials in the subsoil of the Venetian plain”. Quaderni IRSA e del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, IRSA, Rome.

Dal Prà A, Bellati R, Costacurta R, Sbettega G (1976) Distribuzione delle ghiaie nel sottosuolo della pianura veneta “Distribution of graveled materials in the subsoil of the Venetian plain”. Quaderni IRSA e del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, IRSA, Rome.

Di Curzio D (2019) Hydrogeochemical and hydrodynamic features affecting redox processes in groundwater. Acque Sotterranee-Italian Journal of Groundwater, 8(3). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2019-401

Earman S, Dettinger M (2011) Potential impacts of climate change on groundwater resources - a global review. Journal of water and climate change, 2(4), 213-229. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2011.034

Fitts CR (2002) Groundwater science. Elsevier.

Freeze RA, Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Prentice-Hall.

Giordano M (2009) Global groundwater? Issues and solutions. Annual review of Environment and Resources, 34, 153-178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.environ.030308.100251

Gunasekaran R, Kasirajan T (2017) Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for Beginners. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Res. Manag, 2, 9-11.

Lins HF (1985) Interannual streamflow variability in the United States 1143 based on principal components. Water Resources Research 21 (5), 691–701. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1029/WR021i005p00691

Marcolongo B (2012) Foto interpretazione sull’alta pianura vicentina per una ricostruzione paleo-idrografica dei corsi del Leogra e del Timonchio “Photo interpretation on the upper Vicenza plain for a paleohydrographic reconstruction of the Leogra and Timonchio rivers”. in N. Sottani “Antica Idrografia Vicentina”, pp. 265-275, 4, Tavv. f.t., Accademia Olimpica, Vicenza

Meggiorin M, Passadore G, Bertoldo S, Sottani A, Rinaldo A (2019) Stochastic analysis of groundwater temperature timeseries for characterizing check dams efficiency: case study on a Managed Aquifer Recharge site (Veneto, Italy). Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater, 8(4), 7-13. https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2019-410 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2019-410

Meggiorin M, Passadore G, Bertoldo S, Sottani A, Rinaldo A (2021) Assessing the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resources in the Bacchiglione basin (Veneto, Italy) with the Mann–Kendall test: suggestions for higher reliability. Acque Sotterranee-Italian Journal of Groundwater, 10(1), 35-48. https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2021-499 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2021-499

Menciò A, Mas-Pla J (2008) Assessment by multivariate analysis of groundwater–surface water interactions in urbanized mediterranean streams. Journal of hydrology 352 (3-4), 355–366. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.01.014

Mezzalira G, Niceforo U, Gusmaroli G (2014) Aree forestali di infiltrazione (AFI): principi, esperienze, prospettive “Forested Infiltration Areas: principles, experiences and prospective”. Acque Sotterranee-Italian Journal of Groundwater, 3(3/137). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7343/as-087-14-0114

Palmucci W, Rusi S, Di Curzio D (2016) Mobilisation processes responsible for iron and manganese contamination of groundwater in Central Adriatic Italy. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23:11790 -11805. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6371-4

Passadore G (2008) Modello matematico di flusso nei sistemi acquiferi del veneto centrale “Mathematical flow model of the aquifer systems in Central Veneto”. PhD Thesis, Università degli Studi di Padova.

Passadore G, Monego M, Altissimo L, Sottani A, Putti M, Rinaldo A (2012) Alternative conceptual models and the robustness of groundwater management scenarios in the multi-aquifer system of the Central Veneto Basin, Italy. Hydrogeology Journal, 20, 419-433 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-011-0818-y

Pearson K (1901) LIII. On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin philosophical magazine and journal of science, 2(11), 559-572. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14786440109462720

Ribeiro L, Kretschmer N, Nascimento J, Buxo A, Rötting T, Soto G, Señoret M, Oyarzún J, Maturana H, Oyarzún R (2015) Evaluating piezometric trends using the Mann-Kendall test on the alluvial aquifers of the Elqui River basin, Chile. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 60(10), 1840-1852. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2014.945936

Rinaldo A, Passadore G (2018) Modelli matematici per la tutela e la gestione delle risorse idriche sotterranee nell’ambito del territorio del consiglio di Bacino Bacchiglione “Mathematical models for the protection and management of groundwater resources within the Bacchiglione Basin”. Seconda relazione tecnica intermedia (2°stralcio) - Centro Internazionale di Idrologia Dino Tonini-Università degli Studi di Padova.

Sottani A, Vielmo A (2014) Groundwater conservation and monitoring activities in the middle Brenta River plain (Veneto Region, Northern Italy): preliminary results about aquifer recharge. Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater, 3(3), 25-29. https://doi.org/AS-081-14-0107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7343/as-081-14-0107

Sottani N, Pretto L, Viero C, Marcolongo B (1982) Gli acquiferi nella pianura a nord di Vicenza “Aquifers within the plain at North of Vicenza”. Tipolitografica Sociale Artegrafica Cittadella di Padova.

Vettorello L, Sottani A (2019) Using water level and temperature time series to improve hydrogeological parameterization in a complex alluvial system. Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater, 8(4), 47-53. https://doi.org/ as-2019-413 DOI: https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2019-413

Winter T, Mallory S, Allen T, Rosenberry D (2000) The use of principal component analysis for interpreting ground water hydrographs. Groundwater 38 (2), 234–246. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2000.tb00335.x

Meggiorin, M., Bullo, P. ., Accoto, V., Passadore, G., Sottani, A., & Rinaldo, A. (2022). Applying the Principal Component Analysis for a deeper understanding of the groundwater system: case study of the Bacchiglione Basin (Veneto, Italy). Acque Sotterranee - Italian Journal of Groundwater, 11(2), 7–17. https://doi.org/10.7343/as-2022-573

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Citations